Glossary & Resources

BLEND WALL
The maximum amount
of ethanol that can be
blended into gasoline
based on the limitations
of the vehicle fleet and
refueling infrastructure.
RFS
The Renewable Fuel
Standard program
created under the
Energy Policy Act of
2005 (EPAct), which
amended the Clean Air
Act (CAA)
RFS2
The current RFS
program, expanded
under the Energy
Independence and
Security Act of 2007
to create four nested
biofuel categories
E0
Gasoline without
ethanol
E10
Gasoline with
10% ethanol
E15
Gasoline with
15% ethanol
E85
51-83% ethanol with
gasoline
EIA
U.S. Energy Information
Administration
EISA
Energy Independence
and Security Act of
2007
RIN
Renewable Identification
Numbers are credits
used for compliance
and are the “currency”
of the RFS program
  1. NERA Economic Consulting, “Economic Impacts Resulting from Implementation of RFS2 Program” http://bit.ly/18yUahQ
  2. Coordinating Research Council, “Intermediate-Level Ethanol Blends Engine Durability Study” http://bit.ly/12dCjS0
  3. Coordinating Research Council, “Durability of Fuel Pumps and Fuel Level Senders in Neat and Aggressive E15” http://bit.ly/12dCHju
  4. Letter to Lisa Jackson, July 5, 2011 http://www.api.org/~/media/Files/Policy/Fuels-and-Renewables/What-others-aresaying/
    E15_Auto_Responses.pdf
  5. AAA, “New E15 Gasoline May Damage Vehicles and Cause Consumer Confusion” http://bit.ly/12dCZqw
  6. Environmental Working Group, “Senators Seek to Block Higher Ethanol Blend” http://bit.ly/12dD5yw
  7. National Academy of Sciences, “Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy” http://bit.ly/12dF0TL
  8. Stanford University, Center for Food Security and the Environment http://stanford.io/12dFfOO
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2012-2021” http://bit.ly/12dFk51
  10. World Bank Policy Research http://go.worldbank.org/QPII43RIJ0
  11. Schornagela, Niele, Worrell, and Böggemann, “Resources, Conservation and Recycling; Water accounting for (agro)
    industrial operations and its application to energy pathways”, December 2011. www.elsevier.com/locate/resconrec
  12. Energy and Power Subcommittee, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, “Overview of the Renewable Fuel
    Standard: Government Perspectives,” June 2013 http://1.usa.gov/1e3OKIU
  13. EPA, Economics of Biofuels, accessed September 26, 2017 https://www.epa.gov/environmental-economics/economicsbiofuels